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2018年高考北京英语真题卷

2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试

英语(北京卷)

 

第一部分:知识运用(共两节,45)

第一节单项填空(15小题;每小题1,15)

从每题所给的ABCD四个选中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,

并在答题卡上:将该项涂黑。

例: it's so nice to hearfrom her again__,we last met more than thirty years ago.

A. what's more

B. Thats to say

C. In other words

D. Believe it or not

答案是D

1. -Hi, I'm Peter. Are you new here? I haven't seen you around

-Hello, Peter. I'm Bob. I just__on Monday.

A. start

B. have started

C. started

D. had started

2. __we don't stop climate change, many animals and plants in the world will begone.

A. Although

B. While

C. If

D. Until

3. __along the old Silk Road is an interesting and rewarding experience

A. Travel

B. Traveling

C. Having traveled

D. Traveled

4. Susanhad quit her well-paid job and __as a volunteer in the neighborhood. when I visited her last year

A. is working

B. was working

C. has worked

D. had worked

5. She and her family bicycle to work,helps them keep fit

A. which

B. who

C.as

D. that

6. During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together__a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes.

A. share

B. to share

C. having shared

D. shared

7. China's high-speed railways from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the pastfew years.

A. are growing

B. have grown

C. will grow

D. had grown

8. In any unsafe situation, simply__the button and a highly-trained agent willget you the help you need.

A. press

B. to press

C. pressing

D. pressed

9. A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who__in themountains fortwo days.

A. are trapping

B. have been trapped

C. were trapping

D. had been trapped

10. Ordinary soap, __correctly, can dealwith bacteria effectively.

A. used

B. to use

C. using

D. use

11. Without his support, we wouldn't be__we are now.

A. how

B. when

C. where

D. why

12. In today's information age, the loss of data__cause serious problems for acompany.

A. need

B. should

C. can

D. must

13. They might have found a better hotel ifthey__a few more kilometers.

A. drove

B. would drive

C. were to drive

D. had driven

14.-Good morning, Mr. lee's office.

-Good morning. I'd like to make an appointment__next Wednesday afternoon.

A. for

B. on

C. in

D. at

15. This is__my father has taught me-to always face difficulties and hope forthe best.

A. how

B. which

C. the

D. what

 

第二节完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,共30分)

阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的ABCD四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

 

The Homeless Hero

 

For manyfinding an unattended wallet filled with £400 in cash would be a source(来源)of temptation(诱惑).But the 16would no doubt be greater if you wereliving on the streets with little food and money. All of this makes the actions ofthe homeless Tom Smith 17 more remarkable.

After spotting a 18 on the front seat inside a parked car with its windowdownhe stood guard in the rain for about two hourswaiting for the 19 to return.

After hours in the cold and wet, he 20 inside and pulled the wallet outhoping to find some ID so he could contact(联系)the driver only to 21 it contained £400 in noteswith another £50 in spare change beside it.

He then took the wallet to a nearby police station after 22 a note behind tolet the owner know it was safe. When the cars owner John Anderson and his colleagueCarol Lawrence returned to thecar-which was itself worth £35000in Glasgowcitycentre they were 23 to find two policemen standing next to it.Thepolicemen told them what Mr. Smith did and that the wallet was 24.

The pair were later able to thank Mr. Smith for his25 .

Mr. Anderson said:“"I couldnt believe that the guy never took a penny. To think heis sleeping on the streets tonight 26 he could have stolen the money and paidfor a place to stay in. This guy hasnothing and 27he didn't take the wallet forhimselfhe thought about others 28 its unbelievable. It just proves thereare 29 guys out there.

Mr. smiths act 30 much of the publics attention. He also won praise fromsocial media users after Mr. Anderson 31 about the act of kindness onFacebook.

Now Mr. Anderson has set up an online campaign to 32 money for

Mr. Smith and other homeless people in the area, which byyesterday had received 8,000.Ithink the faith that everyone has shown 33 him has touched him. People have beenapproaching him in the street; he's ha I job 34 and all sorts, Mr. Andersoncommented.

For Mr. Smith, this is a possible life-changing 35 . The story once againtells us that one good turn deserves another.

16.

A.hope

B. aim

C.urge

D.effort

17.

A. still

B. even

C. ever

D. once

18.

A. wallet

B. bag

C. box

D. parcel

19.

A. partner

B. colleague

C. owner

D. policeman

20.

A. turned

B. hid

C. stepped

D. reached

21.

A. discover

B. collect

C. check

D. believe

22.

A. taking

B. leaving

C. reading

D. writing

23.

A. satisfied

B. excited

C. amused

D. shocked

24.

A. safe

B. missing

C. found

D. seen

25.

A. service

B. support

C. kindness

D. encouragement

26.

A. when

B. if

C. where

D. because

27.

A. rather

B. yet

C. already

D. just

28.

A. too

B. though

C. again

D. instead

29.

A. honest

B. polite

C. rich

D. generous

30.

A. gave

B. paid

C. cast

D. drew

31.

A. learned

B. posted

C. cared

D. heard

32.

A. borrow

B. raise

C. save

D. earn

33.

A. of

B. at

C. for

D. in

34.

A. details

B. changes

C. offers

D. applications

35.

A. lesson

B. adventure

C. chance

D. challenge

 

第二部分:阅读理解(共两节,40)

第一节(15小题:每小题2,30)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的ABCD四个选项中,选出最仁选项,

在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

My First Marathon(马拉松)

A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and this meant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I was determined to go ahead.

I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn't do either well. He later informedme that I was not athletic.

The idea that I was"not athletic"stuck with me for years. When I started runningin my 30sI realized running was a battle against myself, not about competition orwhether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battle against my own body and mind.A test of wills!

The night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn't even find the finish line. Iwoke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something to myself.

Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces (鞋带)became untied. So Istopped to readjust. Not the start I wanted

At mile3, I passed a sign: GO FOR IT, RUNNERS!

By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly. Despitethe pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.

By mile 21, I was starving

As I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is my biggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questioned my expenses onrunning.

I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, Igot the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.

 

Determined to be myself,, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签) I can now call myself a"marathon winner.

 

36. A month before the marathon, the author.

A. was well trained

B. felt scared

C. made up his mind to run

D. Lost hope

37. Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th year?

A. To acknowledge the support of his teacher.

B. To amuse the readers with a funny story.

C. To show he was not talented in sports.

D. To share a precious memory.

38. How was the author's first marathon?

A. He made it.

B. He quit halfway.

C. He got the first prize.

D. He walked to the end.

39. What does the story mainly tell us?

A. Aman owes his success to his family support.

B. A winner is one with a great effort of will.

C. Failure is the mother of success.

D. One is never too old to learn.

B

Find Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation (航空)Center

If you're looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center(SAC)is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challenge and inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun.

More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment in engineering, aviation,education, medicine and a wide variety of other professions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be an astronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for what they're studying in the classroom.

 

For the traineesthe programs also offer a great way

to earn merit badges(荣誉徽章). At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build andfire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated (模拟) flying to space withthe crew from all over the world. The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviation badge. They learn the principles of flight and test theiroperating skills in the cockpit(驾驶舱)of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees alsoget a good start on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water-and

land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of downed"pilot.

With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance ofleadership and being part of a bigger task.

All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy the experience together,too, with Family Camp programs for families with children as young as 7.

Stay an hour or stay a week--there is something here for everyone!

For more detailsplease visit us online atwww.oursac.com.

 

40. Why do people come to SAC?

A. To experience adventures.

B. To look for jobs in aviation.

C. To get a degree in engineering.

D. To learn more about medicine.

41. To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to.

A. fly to space.

B. get an Aviation badge first.

C. study the principles of flight.

D. build and fire model rockets.

42. What is the most important for trainees?

A. Leadership.

B. Team spirit.

C. Task planning.

D. Survival skills.

C

Plastic-Eating Worms

Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场) and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. qSo farthere is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new studysuggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms.

Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater waxmoth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and theworms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirmthat the worms' chewing alone was notresponsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the

researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物)and applied it to plastic films. 14hours later the films had lost 13%of their mass--apparently broken down by enzymes()from the worms'stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in2017.

Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms'ability to break downtheir everydayfood-beeswax--also allows them to break down plastic "Wax is acomplex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there

as well, "she explains. "The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond. "

Jennifer Debruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was notinvolved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break downpolyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breakingdown in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause ofthe breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?

 

Bertocchini agrees and hopes her teams findings might one day help employ theenzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in somekind of industrial process-not simply"millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic.

 

43. What can we learn about the worms in the study?

A. They take plastics as their everyday food.

B. They are newly evolved creatures.

C. They can consume plastics.

D. They wind up in landfills.

44. According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to.

A. identify other means of the breakdown

B. find out the source of the enzyme

C. confirm the research findings

D. increase the breakdown speed

45. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might.

A. help to raise worms

B. help make plastic bags

C. be used to clean the oceans

D. be produced in factories in future

46. What is the main purpose of the passage?

A. To explain a study method on worms.

B. To introduce the diet of a special worm.

C. To present a way to break down plastics.

D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance.

D

Preparing Cities for Robot Cars

The possibility of self-driving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist's dream,years away from materializing in the real world. Well, the future is apparently now.TheCalifornia Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companiesto test truly self-driving cars on public roads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out self-driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. California, it should be noted, isn't leading the way here. Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. It's hard to predict when

driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.

While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars(and rightfully so), policymakers also should be talking about how self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions(排放) and offer more convenient, affordable

mobility options. The arrival of driverless vehicles is a chance to make sure that those vehicles are environmentally friendly and more shared.

Do we want to copy- or even worsen- the traffic of today with driverless cars?Imagine a future where most adults own individual self-driving vehicles. They tolerate long, slow journeys to and from work on packed highways because they can work,entertain themselves or sleep on the ride, which encourages urban spread. They taketheir driverless car to an appointment and set the empty vehicle to circle the building to avoid paying for parking. Instead of walking a few blocks to pick up a child or the dry cleaning, they send the self-driving minibus. The convenience even leads fewer people to take public transport——an unwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride- hailing(叫车) services.

A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure

(基础设施) and operations40%by2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题).But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.

 

Policymakers should start thinking now about how to make sure the appearance ofdriverless vehicles doesn't extend the worst aspects of the car-controlled transportationsystem we have today. The coming technological advancement presents a chance forcities and states to develop transportation systems designed to move more peopleand

more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.

 

47. According to the authorattention should be paid to how driverless cars can__________.

A. help deal with transportation-related problems

B. provide better services to customers

C. cause damage toour environment

D. make some people lose jobs

48. As for driverless carswhat is the author's major concern

A. Safety.

B. Side effects.

C. Affordability.

D. Management.

49. What does the underlined word fieldedin Paragraph 4 probably mean

A. Employed.

B. Replaced.

C. Shared.

D. Reduced.

50. What is the author's attitude to the future of self-driving cars

A. Doubtful.

B. Positive.

C. Disapproving.

D. Sympathetic

 

 

第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,共10分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Why Do We Get Angry

Anger seems simple when we are feeling it but the causes of anger are various. Knowing these causes can make us examine our behaviorand correct bad habits. The main reasons we get angry are triggering(触发)eventspersonality traits(特征),and our assessment of situations. 51

 

Triggering events for anger are so many that to describe them all would takehundreds of pages. However, here are some examples: being cut off in traffic, adeadline approaching, experiencing physicalpain, and much more._52Thereason why someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one'spersonal history and psychologicaltraits.

Each person. no matter who they are, has psychological imbalances. People whohave personality traits that conncct with competitiveness and low upset tolerance aremuch more likely to get angry.53 Also, sometimes pre-anger does not have todo with a lasting condition, but rather a temporary state before a triggering event hasoccurred.

____54 Sometimes even routine occurrences become sources of pre-anger, oranger itself. Sometimes ignorance and negative (消极的)outlooks on situations cancreate anger.

____55However, anger can easily turn violent, and it is best to know thereasons for anger to appear in order to prevent its presence. With these main reasons inmind, we can evaluate our level of angerthroughout the day and prevent cases ofoutbursts by comprehending the reasons for our feelings.

 

A. Our attitude and viewpoint on situations can create anger within us as well.

B.But some types of situations can help us to get rid of the occurrence of anger.

C. Anger is rarely looked upon as a beneficial character trait, and is usually advised toreduce it.

D. Anger is a particularly strong feeling and maybe people think that they have reasonsto feel angry.

E. Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where anger is in thebackground of your mind.

F. Understanding these reasons will control our own anger if we are willing to evaluateourselves with a critical eye.

G. Not everyone acts the same in response toevents, and that is why what triggers oneperson may or may not trigger another.

 

第三部分:书面表达(共两节,35)

第一节(15)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,你的英国朋友Jim在给你的邮件中提到他

对中国文化感兴趣,计划明年来北京上大学。他向你咨询相关信息。请给他回邮件,内容包括:

1.表示欢迎;

2.推荐他上哪所大学;

3.建议他做哪些准备工作。

 

注意:1.词数不少于50

2.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

Dear Jim

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Yours

Li Hua

 

(请务必将作文写在答题卡指定区域内)

 

第二节(20)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英

文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。

注意:词数不少于60

 

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